Is photography part of a Foucauldian panopticon : a means of grouping, making visible, and disciplining offenders ? The Prevention of Crimes Act set out the rules by which convicts were to be photographed, thus indicating that the Habitual Criminal Office was never intended as a central identification office for all offenders49. Staatsanwaltschaften und der Sicherheitsbehörden, Berlin, 1900. This is a reproduction of the original artefact. Here, the individuality of the human subjects was of secondary importance. 40  Beck / Schmidt (1993, p. 127) note 28 lists the portraits of G. Mazzini, A. Ledru-Rollin, A. Saffi, L. Blanc, H. Magen, F. Pyat, S.-F. Bernard. In adopting such goals, they concentrated on the habitual criminal and felt confronted with more mobile and unknown offenders than ever before ; every individual offender merited closer attention. In 1879 a photographic journal reported that only criminals of the « first and second class » were photographed. 63-76. Style. That never went away. In the US, commercial surveillance applications began around 1947. Further, the measure was deemed ineffective : « Qu'un tel mode serait d'ailleurs trop souvent inefficace, que rien n'est fugitif comme la physionomie humaine et que la moindre modification dans les traits du visage peut changer l'aspect de la figure d'un homme, que l'âge d'ailleurs pour les condamnés à longue peine qui sont les plus dangereux rendrait inutile toute image photographique ». 10.1057/9781137438744_9. Learn How the Brownie Camera Changed Photography Forever. The methods of classification of records developed by Bertillon and later by various experts on fingerprints (such as Henry or Vucetich) were purely methods of identification whereas portrait photographs could be used as tools of investigation a point made by the Chief Constable of Staffordshire when fingerprinting was introduced in Britain (see below). More. Public Record Office, London, HO 12/184/85459. The use of the modern technique of recording was justified by personal scientific interest and/or by the importance of the aim. However the prison inspectors were not convinced and did not recommend the practice24. Later, this practice was extended to all offenders of whom files were established. As a tool of « scientific » investigation into the fabric of the criminal class or anthropological distinctness of criminals, photographs were highly ambiguous. If so, again the question arises : why was it first employed as late as the 1870s, when the disciplinary apparatus was firmly established9 ? Conversely, in a novel he published in 1867, photography featured only as a polite pastime of the elite and as a symbol of emotional attachment, thus reflecting a very « bourgeois » response to the medium33. Some argue that it was forged over 115 years ago, half a world away in the Philippine Islands. Odebrecht, K.T., Die Benutzung der Photographie für das Verfahren in Strafsachen, Archiv für preußisches Strafrecht, 1864, 12, pp. The Fenian outrages of 1867 and the Irish question added another urgent problem44. In the initial period from November 1870 to December 1872, the Habitual Criminals Register collected more than 43 000 photographs of prisoners from 115 penitentiaries in England and Wales45. 15The reaction of prison administrations and courts up to the 1860s was not encouraging to the experimenters. Predictive Policing and Everyday Police Work January 7, 2021; CFP: Photography and Policing, special issue of History of Photography … Examples of Surveillance Photography in History and Modern Day. Quoted from Fig. (Eds. Hereford County Prison, the rate was much higher : of the 321 photographs sent, 23 (= 7 %) were of prisoners already in the files. Pattern. It was natural, then, to classify the images by crime, as it was natural to take pictures according to the practice of commercial photographers to which the public was accustomed. Hardly any police official from the 1840s to the late 1860s imagined photography as a tool to identify ordinary criminals or considered the collection of portraits as an adequate means of recording known offenders. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. 30After a few years of collecting, it became obvious that simply amassing photographs was useless after a certain number of images had been accumulated. Museum of London 5Although the police's use of photography grew in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the motives and developments need to be reconsidered. This does not imply that portraits were never scrutinised with the application of physiognomic theories – this surely happened – but there was nothing decisively different in the staging of the sitters. Sep 11th 2. 56  From 1878 on, the political police in Berlin collected approximately 2 700 portraits of political offenders a year. Again Beese does not indicate which police adopted it. unknown, 7,8 x 5.2 cm ; Deutsches Fahndungsblatt 1899, 1, p. 413 ; Courtesy : Staats- und Universitatsbibliothek Hamburg, Fotostelle. Collections. 222-223. 24A similar development took place in France. To compare contemporary digital surveillance media with analogue photography and its documentary limitations, which have since been identified and studied at length, it is of relevance to look back at the dawn of mechanical image production. In Britain, the suffrage movement began in earnest in 1903. advertisement. Judicial photography, as Bertillon termed it, took its pattern from anthropological theories and was far removed from the type of photography that contemporaries were familiar with (Fig. 19-20). Repertorium. 18  Leuenberger (1998, p. 101). According to Beese (1964, p. 542) it was introduced by Dr. Oidtmann and adopted by the police in 1872. ARTH 3560 - History of Photo Blog for discussion posts + replies for ARTH 3560 History of Photo WWI-present (Spring 2015) Pages. In turn, this led to the surveillance images, as they walked around the exercise yard of the prison, the women were completely unaware that they were being photographed from several feet away. Was photography, when applied, really a « means of surveillance » (John Tagg)8 ? His long-lens photography equipment — the purchase of which was authorised by the then Home Secretary — was rudimentary, but effective. Beck, B. F. / Schmidt, W. It was the alleged dan-gerousness of an offender which merited the application of photography. A History of Photography in 50 Cameras explores the 180-year story of perhaps the most widely used device ever built. Orientation. 2, p. 3). 17Around 1855/1860 a couple of German police publications began to publish lithographic images made from photographs of wanted or unidentified persons (who were not necessarily criminals) on the request of public prosecutors, judges or police officers34. photography, bus shelter . The police's approach was still guided by popular notions about photography and by the practical gaze59 representing the experience of daily police work. The search for distinguishing details, the minute clues and intriguing trace typical of scientific police work, was not yet common when the police started to use photographs. 3Recent historical inquiry suggests the strong influence of medical and anthropological thinking on the form, function and use of judicial photography. Portrait photography grew into a more sophisticated practice, on the one hand, and, on the other, more people could afford it, thus shifting the function of social distinction towards price, style and the format of the images. Ludwig Gruber, attorney in Budapest, believed that the anthropometric system and photography together would deter criminals from entering the countries in which these had been introduced. They supplemented the practice of description with a technical aid. 77  Public Record Office, London, HO 45/10409/a63109/12. A history of surveillance The Nigerian government has never openly admitted its surveillance capabilities, but in August 2019, they passed and signed the Federal Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters Bill into law, allowing the government to carry out surveillance activities on citizens on behalf of foreign nations if conducting criminal investigations. Special issue 20th anniversary, Histoire de la criminalité et de la justice pénale en Amérique latine / Criminal justice history in Latin America, A digital resources portal for the humanities and social sciences, Crime, Histoire & Sociétés / Crime, History & Societies, http://journals.openedition.org/chs/docannexe/image/1056/img-1.jpg, http://journals.openedition.org/chs/docannexe/image/1056/img-2.jpg, http://journals.openedition.org/chs/docannexe/image/1056/img-3.jpg, http://journals.openedition.org/chs/docannexe/image/1056/img-4.jpg, Catalogue of 552 journals. 39  There were some exceptions : for Danzig 1864 ; « other » German capitals, 1865, Moscow, 1867, see Beese (1964, p. 542) Beese gives no references ; for Odense, 1867 ; see Regener (1992, pp. was the condition for a correct verdict, for the prison administration, the precondition for a prisoner's treatment. Roscher, G., Beduerfnisse der modernen Kriminalpolizei, Archiv fuer Kriminal-Anthropologie und Kriminalistik, 1898,, pp. Mobility and approval of rights and benefits relied on the ability to produce valid documents. : Anthropometric card, 27 May 1898 (fingerprints probably added later), no format or technique given ; Friedrich Paul, Handbuch der kriminalistischen Photographie, Berlin 1900 ; Courtesy: Polizeihistorische Sammlung, Berlin. Klein, Gutachten [Antwort auf die Frage : Empfiehlt es sich überhaupt oder doch inwieweit, die anthropometrischen Messungen der Bestraften nach Bertillon in den einzelnen Strafanstalten einzuführen ? 29Many police forces published the number of persons photographed in their annual reports, thus evoking the idea of efficiency. To Ave-Lallemant, the majority of those pictures showed good-natured faces and provided no hints to corroborate physiognomic theories about the distinct features of criminals35. In comparison, the system introduced in Berlin probably originated with the police itself. The Home Office commissioned the undercover photography of militant suffragettes from 1913. Bertillon had insisted that a portrait for police purposes had to be very different from the products of commercial photographers in style, pose, format, focusing, and exposure. Covert surveillance cameras may also be used to assist with the detection and prosecution of vandalism, senior neglect, child abuse, harassment, and stalking. 2-3). On 16 March 1955, the United States Air Force officially ordered the development of an advanced reconnaissance satellite to provide continuous surveillance of "preselected areas of the Earth" in order "to determine the status of a potential enemy’s war-making capability".. Types. The following examples show who began to experiment with photography and why. He urged the photographing of criminals as often as possible because, he claimed, their way of life changed their features rapidly74. 55  Verwaltungs-Bericht (1882, p. 468 and 470). In Switzerland around 1850, vagrancy was seen as the problem which merited paramount attention. Gustav Roscher, chief of the criminal department of the police in Hamburg, wrote, in an article on the requirements of the modern criminal police in 1898, that photography was one of its most important aids73. 783, Statement of the numbers of photographs of convicted criminals sent from the prisons of each county and borough to London ; costs incurred ; and, number of cases in which any have led to detection. The portrait was issued as a warning because, after the six months, Beyer would be extradited from Hannover and the authorities assumed that he would resume his former fraudulent life. Siemann, W., Guiseppe Mazzini in Württemberg ? The scheme of the Swiss Attorney General, Jacob Amiet, in 1852 and the experiments of English prison governors in the early 1850s illustrate the importance of these motives. It covers cameras in all forms, revealing the origins and development of each model and tracing the stories of the photographers who used and popularized them. You can choose up to 3 colors. In a way, the portraits represent the criminal « elite » as the authorities perceived them according to the threat they were believed to pose to society31. Neue Entwicklungen in der historischen Kriminalitätsforschung, Historische Anthropologie, 1994, 2, pp. The images were intended as a supplement to the files and as a means of identifying vagrants when they were apprehended again. 1989, pp. 27). Drawing from Swiss, English, French, and German sources, the contingent use of photographs in the penal system is presented as its main feature. The history of « police photography » has been written either as a linear development from the 1850s on or as part of the history of the repressive institutions of the state culminating, in the 1890s, in a universal system of registration, classification, and identification7. 5, n°1 | 2001, Online since 06 April 2009, connection on 23 January 2021. Hoerner (1980, pp. Edwards, E. 7In October 1852, Amiet had commissioned the photographer, Carl Durheim, to take pictures of every vagrant arrested and brought to Bern for questioning16. The question of why photography was applied comparatively late as an instrument of the criminal police was never raised. However he concentrates on France and Bertillon, and the structural similarities between medical, anthropological, and police photography which merged in Bertillon's scientific thought. Today, photography – and street photography in particular – is a contested sphere in which all our collective anxieties converge: terrorism, paedophilia, intrusion, surveillance. 27There was only very little in the contemporary literature on legal or criminal matters that could help policemen in applying photography. This indicates that photographs were considered to be a practical aid for detection in a narrow sense and not seen as a means of identification. Alphonse Bertillon's innovations solved this problem and later he introduced a specialised « judicial style » of photography into the police. unknown, 5,9 x 4,9 cm (each); Deutsches Fahndungsblatt 1899, 1, p. 875; Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg, Fotostelle. The immediate experience of the Commune had paved the way for a photographic register of « dangerous » political offenders52. Other forms of portraiture, such as anthropological studies or images of « savages », artisans or farmers, were either intended as scientific materials or historical documents, or formed part of artistic compositions. An early Leica I with Elmar 50mm f/3.5 lens. In Britain, the Photographic Journal of 1872 recommended the plain portrait en face and proposed that the Home Office should publish a set of rules on how such images should be taken ; cf. The way rogues’galleries were used in the first years has more in common with browsing through a family album than with sophisticated attempts to track down an alleged offender. The general discourse on photography altered. In an act of defiance, the suffragettes refused to pose for these photographs. Instead, the way a person was photographed referred to his or her status. A system borrowed from anthropology42 was slowly, but not universally adopted : the unretouched portrait, en face and en profile, developed in the 1870s43. Franz v. Liszt, the influential professor of law, acknowledged the problem of classification, but had a good opinion of photographic portraits as a means of identification.68 Alphonse Bertillon responded to this debate with the publication of La Photographie judiciaire in 189069. The portrait of Theodor Wilhelm Friedrich Beyer was published after he was sentenced to six months in prison. In this article, some rules for taking judicial photographs were proposed : the portrait en face and en profile which must not be retouched. But as the label » dangerous » changed and was, in any case, inaccurate ; this principle was not more than a rule of thumb. Photography became more reliable and simple, and began to provide a general means of recording and representation for every conceivable need. Let’s start with Orwell. Sep 10th. The ministère de l'Intérieur decided against this measure because it was seen as an aggravation of the penalty not approved by the law26. Hence, the criticism of the 1850s and 1860s of the use of portrait photography to identify and detect criminals is revealing (see below) because, as long as the photographs of criminals were taken by commercial photographers – which was common practice until the early 1890s –, there was very little to distinguish a portrait of a criminal from one of a respectable citizen. In March 1872 the director of the prison administration addressed the Ministry of the Interior about whether this scheme could not be extended to civilians sentenced for « insurrection ». After the Habitual CriminalsAct was passed in 1869 (supplemented by the Prevention of Crimes Act in 1871), a photographic register was established at the Metropolitan Police Office. In the hands of the criminal police, it was a symbol of professionalism and efficiency, but still reserved for the dangerous cases, although the definition of who was a major threat to society from the policemen's point of view changed. These collections were used to identify a criminal who had recently committed a crime. 6In the mid-nineteenth century, there was hesitation, reservation or even ignorance about the use of photographic portraits to record and detect criminals (for many people in the 1850s, photography was still new and uncommon). Communication between police forces, courts and prisons was improved, it was claimed, even on an international level. In a particularly dramatic move, the suffragette Mary Richardson entered the National Gallery in 1914 and slashed “The Rokeby Venus,” a painting of the nude goddess Venus gazing into a mirror, by the Spanish artist Diego Velázquez. To the public and to normal detectives not blessed with Holmes’abilities, photography represented professional and sophisticated police work. Kleinere Mitteilungen - Polizei-Photographie, Photographisches Wochenblatt, 1879, p. 16. August 1892), Zeitschrift für die gesamte Strafrechtswissenschaft, 1893, 3, pp. 12The idea of degrading photography by using it for police purposes was also expressed in a poem published in Punch in 185329. Judicial photography, 1850 to 1900 », Crime, Histoire & Sociétés / Crime, History & Societies, Vol. Professional police photographs demanded a good deal of training for the person producing them and the police officer using them. The longer the lens, the greater protection you will have from detection. Museum of London Detectives and senior police officers rarely reflected on the practice of photography before the turn of the century. To a participant in today’s polite and well-tempered Women’s Marches, this type of anarchistic behavior may sound like a fun deviation — making your voice heard and standing up for your beliefs in a major, action-oriented way. Stolze, F., Ueber physiognomische Aufnahmen, Photographisches Wochenblatt, 1881, 7, p. 143 f. Tagg, J., A means of surveillance : The photograph as evidence in law, in Tagg, J., The Burden of Representation. Kompositions-Photographien, Photographisches Wochenblatt, 1879, 5, p. 204 f. Leuenberger, M., Mittendrin : Der Landjäger Heinrich Dill im Kanton Basel-Landschaft um 1850, Sowi - Sozialwissenschaftliche Informationen, 1998, 27, pp. But there were no outlines of a theory of criminal photography ; these became visible only in the 1890s. This art form became publicly recognized ten years later and is largest growing hobby in the world. 6  This difference is crucial ; see Sekula (1989, 53 f.). While Croften asserted their bad influence on first-time offenders, Gardener emphasised the importance of identifying a prisoner as a recidivist because the law called for harsher punishment for the latter23. Ideally, the photographic portraits served as a part of the offenders’biography and as a mechanism to extract as much information from them as possible after apprehension. It was intended as a measure to build confidence in the authority of the state. 3 - in the caption it was presumed that these pickpockets belonged to the « international crooks »). HomeNumérosVol. The History of the Digital Camera. Still, before and after the Bertillonage and the general introduction of fingerprinting70, standard photographic portraits remained an important instrument of detection and identification. Kleinere Mitteilungen - Polizei-Photographie (1879, p. 16). 660-671. According to a Wall Street Journal report, the history of non-military drone use began in earnest in 2006. 52  Rouillé (1989, p. 479). An Illustrated History of Photography. On considère en général que l'histoire de la photographie policière débute dans les années 1850 lorsque l'on effectue les premiers clichés de prisonniers, et qu'il existe à cet égard une relation étroite entre les préoccupations médicales, anthropologiques et judiciaires. Après quelques années, les collections devinrent encombrantes et ingérables. This system focused attention on habitual criminals or on criminals suspected of becoming habitual. 4  It seems that the police resisted, for a considerable time, the scientific turn described by Carlo Ginzburg (1980, esp. Nothing could better illustrate how the response to judicial photography had changed, on the one hand, yet it still evoked uneasiness whenever its application exceeded accepted limits (corroborating the identity of or detecting an offender), on the other. Cecil introduced the paragraphs on judicial photography with the incorrect statement that, in some countries, every person convicted of any crime was photographed, Ibid. Verbrechen und Strafe, 1800-1914, Reinbek, Rowohlt, 1997. Roscher, G., Großstadtpolizei. Serendipitous Outcomes in Space History: From Space Photography to En-vironmental Surveillance. May 4, 2019 - Rhizome | On the Natural History of Surveillance. From that moment on, prisoners were measured but not photographed64. Bertillon's ideas were not original, but they were elaborate. The year of the Commune, 1871, was crucial for the introduction of photography into the agencies of law enforcement. The approach of the police seems to have been purely empirical. Beese, W., Zur Geschichte der Polizeiphotographie, Kriminalistik, 1964, 18, pp. However this should not be overemphasised because, in a different context, a published image of a wanted person stresses exactly the opposite : the evasion by this very person of the institutions of discipline and control. The report also gave figures of persons photographed (1879 more than 7100 and 1880 more than 9100). Cecil (1864, p. 497). 372-383. According to Phillips, the San Francisco Police Department made daguerreotype portraits of criminals as early as 1854, and other departments adopted this measure. At the same time, photographing those offenders displayed the government's ability to identify and to fight them. Aerial photographs of Auschwitz taken by the Allied Air Forces during World War II were first exposed in 1978 by Dino Brugioni and Robert Poirer, two aerial photo-analysts who worked for the CIA. But he saw this equality in the faces of proletarians, cf. The surveillance images that you see in this article are currently exhibited alongside many more like it as part of an exhibition at the Museum of London, which holds the largest collection of material relating to the British suffragette movement in the world. These people were not simply criminals, and a Karl Marx or a Giuseppe Mazzini had a bourgeois background socially equal to their prosecutors'. Arbeiterbewegung ( 1871-1898 ), Zeitschrift für Kulturaustausch, 1990, 3, pp a re-enactment of a person German... Some governors of British prisons, too, experimented with photography nobody apprehended for petty,,! 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